Around 10,000 bears are currently kept on Chinese bear farms where they produce a surplus of bile which has led to efforts to expand the use of bear bile into cosmetics and shampoos. China initiated commercial bear farming in 1984, ostensibly to satisfy the demand for bile by practitioners of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Traditional Korean Medicine (TKM).
As the bile is periodically drained the captive bears do not have to be killed; it was claimed that this practice would reduce the taking of wild bears. The farms were initially stocked with wild bears and although the Chinese farms are purportedly now mainly self-propagating (with some continuing exceptions), there is no evidence that their existence has reduced the killing (poaching) of wild bears.
In 2005 in Vietnam species-specific legislation was introduced banning the practice of bear bile farming; sadly the practice still persists due to legal loopholes and continuing product demand exists. Official government figures indicate that there were 1,453 bear farmers in the country in 2005, and show a gradual decline in the number of farmed bears from 4,190 in 2005 to around 3,500 in 2009. The most recent government estimate puts the number of bears at around 1,200. Many farms in Vietnam are small, family-owned enterprises, with some families or companies owning a single bear and extracting bile occasionally. Farms were initially stocked with bears removed from the wild. The condition in which these bears are kept precludes successful breeding and cub rearing; in fact, most of farms do not attempt to breed their bears.
In Vietnam, moon bears and Malayan sun bears are both farmed. Under Vietnam’s Ministerial Decree 32, both of these species are listed in category 1B (critically endangered) and are legally protected. However, due to a lack of law enforcement resources, bears continue to be captured for the bile farming industry or killed for their meat and body parts. Every year, Animals Asia rescues wild-caught cubs, confiscated from smugglers en route to farms in Vietnam and neighbouring countries such as Laos and China.
In South Korea around 1,600 bears are held in an estimated 74 farms. In sharp contrast, fewer than 20 bears can be found at Jirisan Restoration Center, located in Korea’s Jirisan National Park.
Bear bile farming industry put on notice by World Conservation Congress (14 September 2012) — The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) World Conservation Congress, the world’s largest and most important conservation event has passed a resolution addressing the issue of bear bile farming.
Animals Asia supplied much of the information for this page. They work tirelessly to rescue bears from bear bile farms and deserve your support. For more information on bear farming and the work of Animals Asia, click here.
For more on the situation in South Korea see International Aid for Korean Animals (IAKA) website.
Page updated 11 September 2017