Throughout: We have used The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) for all taxonomic data on species and subspecies.


Galbreath, G. J., Hean, S. and Montgomery, S. M. 2000. “A new color phase of Ursus thibetanus (Mammalia: Ursidae)” from Southeast Asia. Natural History Bulletin of the Siam Society 49: 107-111.

Garshelis, D.L. & Steinmetz, R. (IUCN SSC Bear Specialist Group) 2008. Ursus thibetanus. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <>.

Servheen, C., Herrero, S., & Peyton, B. “Bears: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan”, IUCN/SSC Bear Specialist Group

Garshelis, D.L. & Steinmetz, R. (IUCN SSC Bear Specialist Group). 2008. Ursus thibetanus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T22824A9391633.

Some information from “Japanese black bear conservation”, article on the WWF website.

Some information from “Fauna of British India – Mammals Volume 2”, R. I. Pocock (1941) pp 221/222.


Some information from “Bears of the World”, Lance Craigshead, Voyageur Press, 2000.

Fredriksson, G., Steinmetz, R., Wong, S. & Garshelis, D.L. (IUCN SSC Bear Specialist Group) 2008. Helarctos malayanus. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <>

“Human-imposed threats to sun bears in Borneo” Meijaard, Erik in Ursus Volume 11 (1999), pp 185 – 192


Some of the information on in this section is from Garshelis, D.L., Ratnayeke S. & Chauhan, N.P.S. (IUCN SSC Bear Specialist Group) 2008. Melursus ursinus. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <>


“The Polar Bear: Ursus maritimus Biology, Management, and Conservation”, published in 2003 as Chapter 27 in the second edition of Wild Mammals of North America. Edited by George A. Feldhamer, Bruce C. Thompson, and Joseph A. Chapman

“Genomic Evidence for Island Population Conversion Resolves Conflicting Theories of Polar Bear Evolution” James A. Cahill,     Richard E. Green, Tara L. Fulton, Mathias Stiller, Flora Jay, Nikita Ovsyanikov, Rauf Salamzade, John St. John, Ian Stirling,    Montgomery Slatkin, Beth Shapiro. PLOS Genetics – March 2013, Volume 9, Issue 3.


Some dates in this section were retrieved from  This site was also used to cross-check a number of facts.

Much of the information on Japanese Zoos comes from “An Investigation into the Welfare of Captive Polar Bears in Japan” (downloads from Bear Conservation website), published by Animal Concerns Research and Education Society (Acres) 2007 (and sadly, still largely up to date).


California Department of Fish & Game (now known as California Department of Fish & Wildlife) “Black Bear Management Plan” (July 1998).

Some information taken from “A Bear’s Life” in SpruceRoots magazine.

“Black Bear Management Report”, Alaska Department of Fish & Game, December 2002.

Some information from “Spirit bear factsheet”, Province of British Columbia, 2006.

“Land Mammals of Oregon”, pp 373 – 376, Verts and Carroway, University of California 1998

Hall, E.R. 1981. “The mammals of North America” 2nd ed. John Wiley and Sons. New York. 1.181 pp.  (for map)


“Conservation Case Study of the Gobi Bear”, Peter J Balint & Jennifer A Steinberg, 2003.  In D. Badarch, R.A. Zilinskas, and P.J. Balint, editors. Mongolia Today: Science, Culture, Environment, and Development. London, UK: RoutledgeCurzon, pp. 238-257.

“Mongolian Red List of Mammals”, compiled by Emma L. Clark & Munkhbat Javzansuren, edited by S. Dulamtseren, J. E. M. Baillie, N. Batsaikhan, S. R. B. King, R. Samiya & M. Stubbe. Zoological Society of London 2006, pp 13-17.

Some information from the “Kodiak Bear Fact Sheet” of the Alaska Department of Fish & Game.

Some information taken from “Land-cover change and the future of the Apennine brown bear: a perspective from the past”, Alessandra Falcucci, Luigi Maiorano, Paolo Ciucci, Edward O. Garton & Luigi Boitani in the Journal of Mammalogy Vol. 89, Issue 6 (Dec 2008), pp 1502-1511.  Also from the website of the Parco Nazionale della Majello.  Map source: Rauer, G., Spassov, N., Spiridonov, G., Nyholm, E. S., Nyholm, K.-E., Camarra, J.-J., Mertzanis, G., Boscagli, G., Osti, F., Sorensen, O. J., Swenson, J. E., Kvam, T., Frackowiak, W., Gula, R., Perzanowski, K., Ionescu, O., Hell, P., Find’O, S., Clevenger, A. P., Purroy, F. J., Cienfuegos, J. N., Quesada, C. N., Sandegren, F., Bjarvall, A., Franzén, R., Söderberg, A., Wabakken, P., and Huber, D. (1999). Brown Bear Conservation Action Plan for Europe (Ursus arctos). In Bears: 55-122. Servheen, C., Herrero, S., and Peyton, B.(Eds.). Oxford: IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.


Some information taken from Sanderson, I. 1972. “Living Mammals of the World”. Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company and from  Ward, P., S. Kynaston. 1995. Bears of the World. London: Blandford.

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